Kurangumanjal, Annatto

Scientific Name :
Bixa orellana L.
Synonym(s) :
Bixa americana Poir.
Local/Common name(s) :
Kurangumanjal, Annatto
Family :
Bixaceae
Habit :
Shrubs
Flowering/Fruiting Time :
June-November
Habitat :
Grown as ornamental plant
Endemic :
No
Status (IUCN) :
Least concern (LC)
Distribution :
Originally from Tropical America; now widespread in the tropics
Nativity :
Exotic
Uses :
Medicine
Description (Morphology) :

Shrubs or small evergreen trees, 2-9 m high; young branches densely dark scaly; wood pale yellow, soft. Leaves alternate, ovate, subcordate or truncate at base, long-acuminate at apex, 7-24 x 4-16 cm, shining above, densely red- dotted, initially scaly beneath, glabrous later; lateral nerves 4 or 5 pairs; petioles slender, 4-10 cm long, stipules 5-6 mm long. Inflorescence a terminal corymb or panicle, 8-50 flowered, scaly; pedicels 7-10 mm long. Flowers 3-5 cm across. Sepals broadly ovate to suborbicular, concave, scaly, purple. Petals 5-7, unequal, obovate, rounded at apex, 2-3 x 1-2 cm, pink. Stamens many; filaments slender, yellow at base, red at apex; anthers purple. Ovary densely covered with thick red bristles; style 12-15 mm long, swollen above, red. Capsules globose or broadly ovoid, nearly truncate at base, abruptly short-acuminate at apex or elongate-ovate with narrowly long-acuminate apex, 2-4 x 1.5-3.5 cm, with dense long stiff but soft and flexible bristles, green when young, brownish red with age; seeds obpyramidal, ca 5 x 4-5 mm, orange-red.

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