Mangosteen

Scientific Name :
Garcinia mangostana L.
Synonym(s) :
Mangostana garcinia Gaertn.
Local/Common name(s) :
Mangosteen
Family :
Clusiaceae
Habit :
Tree
Flowering/Fruiting Time :
Throughout the year
Habitat :
Cultivated
Endemic :
No
Status (IUCN) :
Distribution :
Native of Malaysia, widely cultivated in Tropical Asia
Nativity :
Exotic
Uses :
Food
Description (Morphology) :

Evergreen trees, to 20 m high, bark black or dark brown, smooth; exudation yellow, sticky; branchlets decussate, stout, cylindric, slightly grooved, glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate, estipulate; petiole 20-25 mm long, stout, glabrous, slightly grooved above, ligulate projections at base prominent, clasping the branches; lamina 8-25 x 4-12 cm, elliptic to elliptic-oblong or ovate-oblong, base acute, obtuse or rotund, apex acute or shortly acuminate, margin entire, often slightly revolute, glabrous, thickly coriaceous, glossy; lateral nerves numerous, parallel, close, slender, prominent, looped near the margin forming intramarginal nerve, intercostae reticulate, obscure. Flowers polygamodioecious; male flowers : pale green, to 4 cm across, 3-9 in terminal fascicles; pedicels 1.5-2 cm long; bracts orbicular, concave, scarious; sepals 4, erect, unequal, coriaceous, concave; petals 4, larger than sepals, ovate, fleshy, yellow-red inside, green red outside; stamens numerous, inserted on 4 thick, receptacular lobes below the rudimentary pistil; filaments short; anthers ovate-oblong, recurved; rudimentary pistil discoid, fleshy, red, apex conical, as long as stamens; bisexual flowers: 1-2 at the apices of branchlets, purple; pedicel 1.8-2 cm long, stout, woody; sepals 4, rarely 5, decussate, orbicular, concave, thick, persistent, outer pair shorter than inner; petals 4, purple, upto 3 cm long, orbicular, concave, thick, fleshy; stamens many, 1-2 seriate; filaments 4-5 mm long, slender, connate at base; anthers ovate-oblong, apex recurved; ovary superior, globose, smooth, 5-8-locular; ovules solitary, ascending; stigmas sessile, punctate, 5-8 lobed, lobes cuneiform. Fruit a berry; 5-7 cm across, glossy purplish-black, smooth, surrounded at base by sepals, apex crowned by 5-8 lobed stigma; pericarp thick, spongy, reddish, with yellow latex; seeds upto 8, oblong, 1-2 cm long, laterally compressed; aril opaque, very pleasant, juicy, thick, white.

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